interior Venetian blinds – Milam Building, San Antonio, TX, US

Operable blinds provide shading while still allowing for daylight and/or views out, depend on how they are adjusted. This style of blinds provides two levels of control. The angle of the blind fins may be adjusted (rotated), and the blinds as a whole may be open or shut (raised or lowered.)

Outdoor dining – Historic Market Square, San Antonio, TX, US

Outdoor dining in the shade of the porch ceiling promotes the thermal comfort of the patrons. The shaded, fresh air is allowed to circulate, and there is distance between the diners and the heat of the kitchen.


In this example, the air circulation is further aided by the tall ceilings and ceiling fans; both of which serve to draw the hot air upward.

Ceiling fans – Historic Market Square, San Antonio, TX, US

Ceiling fans promote air movement and draw hot air upward; both are beneficial means of improving thermal comfort in a hot-humid climate. In this example, the ceiling fans are placed in high porch ceilings above restaurant patrons. Outdoor dining, in the shade of the porch ceiling, also promotes the thermal comfort of the patrons.

sleeping porches – The Gamble House, Pasadena, CA, US

A sleeping porch allows one to comfortably sleep outside, where the nighttime air is cooler (and more likely to have a breeze) than indoors.

This example is at the Gamble House, in Pasadena, CA, US. Designed by Greene and Greene in 1908.

inglenook – Daniel Lummus House, Ipswich, MA, US

An inglenook takes advantage of the radiant heat of a fireplace by placing recessed seating within a partially enclosed hearth.

This inglenook dates to 1686. It is the only extant First Period (pre-Revolutionary War) example in the US of an inglenook with a built-in seat.